Ashvin Rural

Ayurveda is an everlasting science of medicine because it deals with all aspects of life. Particularly of human being since time immemorial.
It is the science of life and has both preventive and the rapeutic aspects of treatment. Among the Asthtanga of Ayurveda Kayachikitsa is considered as a very important branch. Kayachikitsa means treatment of the kaya i.e. whole human body.
Kayachikitsa is included as a main subject for final BAMS curriculum. This subject carries weightage of 290 marks. (200 marks for theory and 90 Marks for practical) This subject consists of 2 papers which includes Basic principles, infectious diseases, all systemic diseases and their management, endocrinology, Nutritional, disorders, Various, type of bites. Stings and their symptomatology and Management in details.
Kaya chikitsa of ARAC has eminent teaching staff with professors, Associate professors and lecturers. Department of kayachikitsa is well equipped with different models illustrative charts, audio visual material like CDC, http, Slides also various equipment required for clinical examinations emergency procedure and emergency drugs etc.
During 3 terms of final BAMS Curriculum, different practicals, emergency Procedure emergency drugs, case taking on patients and management of various diseases are taught to student department of kayachikitsa Conduct post graduation course i.e. M.D. kayachikitsa best at our institution.

  • Department Staff
  • Infrastructure Available
  • Facilities Available
  • Activity
  • Achievements
  • Future Plans
  • PG Scholar Research Work
  • Photos

Teaching Staff

Vd. Sanjeev Bapurao Lokhande

Professor/ Principal

AYKC00883

B.A.M.S. M.D.

Vd. Rajendra Baraku Patil

Professor 

AYKC00686

B.A.M.S. M.D.

Vd. Shreerang Sharadchandra  Chhapekar

Reader

AYKC00279

B.A.M.S. M.D.

Vd. Abhijit Balkrushna Gaikwad

Reader

AYKC01698

B.A.M.S. M.D.

Vda. Smita Shubhash Kolte

Lecturer

AYKC00923

B.A.M.S. M.D.

Vd. Ravindra  Baban Atram

Lecturer

AYKC00277

B.A.M.S. M.D.

Vd. Avinash Jayawant Jadhav

Lecturer

AYKC01181

B.A.M.S. M.D.

Vd. Kuldip Ratnasinh Rajput

Lecturer

AYKC02914

B.A.M.S. M.D.

Non-Teaching Staff

Shri. Tukaram Namdev Borhade

Attendant

Shri.Appasaheb Dnyandev Shendkar

Data Entry Operator

Shri. Amol Chandrabhan Nagare

MPW

Sr.No.InfrastructureDetails
1Library Books150
2Charts55
3Models07
4Museum00
5Specimen10

 

  • P. G. Section, separate cabins for Lectures, readers and Professors.
  • Departmental library and  e-library,  Models Various Shlokas chart.
Sr.No.InfrastructureDetails
1Computer Set with Printer01
2LCD Projector00
3Teachers Tables07
4Students Chairs23
5Cupboard07
6Model table02
7Small Desk06
8Fan04
9Rack02
10Foamboard34
11Tube02
12Bulb05

Departmental Activity:-

  • Undergraduate student are encouraged for literary research work. They have prepared beautiful compilation of following topic under faculty guidance.
  • Helminthes disease, Unmad and Schizophrenia, Endocrine Disorder, Epilepsy and apsmara, Obesity, Aamavaata, Psoriasis, Vishamjwara and typhoid.
  • Daily regular lectures on the basic of concept of Kayachikitsa
  • Regular practical on concern topic
  • Planned rutuwise shodhan shibir (vasantik vaman shibir shardiy virechan shibir) in panchakarma department
  • Seminar / CME

    Seminar :Kayachikitsa organized national seminar on “An ayurvedic Approach of  Kustha with scientific research evidence” on 30th July 2021.

     

    Eminent speaker :Dr. Saurabh G. Deshmukh. HOD. Kayachiktsa Dept. Mahatama Gandhi Ayurved College and Hospital and research  centre, Wardha

  •  

    CME : Kayachikitsa department organized CME on “An ayurvedic Approach to biological Adaptation.” On 29th July 2021.

  •  

    Eminent speaker: Dr. Smita D. Paul Proffessor : Rog nidan evam Vikruti vidnyan department. R. D. Memorial PG Ayurvedic College and Hospital Ratibad Bhopal.

  • Guest lecture
  • Regular OPD visit of students in hospital.
  • Different competition article /paper presentation under kayachikitsa
  • Conducting internal/ exams related subject.
  • Articles 
  • Dr. Sanjeev Bapurao  Lokhande  (Professor)

    No.

    Name of Published Article/Paper

    Name of Journal of publication

    Year

    1

    Clinical Study Of Beneficial Role Of Nasya And Shirodhara Along With Shaman Chikitsa- A Review Article

    Journal Of Bio Innovation 

    2020

    2

    A Clinical Study Of Trushanadi Churna In The Management Of Sthoulya With Special Reference To Obesity 

    Journal Of Bio Innovation

    2020

    3

    Pandu -A Case Study    

    Journal Of Bio Innovation

    2020

    4

    Vataj Kasa And Its Management By Vasavleha And Kantakaryavaleha In Vataj Kasa W.S.R. To Pulmonary Eosinophilia        

    Ayushee International Interdisciplinary Research Journal 

    2020

    5

    Effect Of Brahmi Ghanavati And Jatamansi Siddha Tail Shirodhara On Mental Illness- A Clinical Study      

    Ayushee International Interdisciplinary Research Journal 

    2020

    Dr. Shreerang Sharadchandra Chhapekar

    No.

    Name of Published Article/Paper

    Name of Journal of publication

    Year

    1

    Management of lyme disease with polyherbal combination of of lyme and devine 9 adaptogen immunoprotector

    IAMJ

    2018

    2

    An open labeled study to evaluate the efficacy of valliliv capsule in viral hepatitis International

    International journal of development research

    2018

    3

    A single blind randomized controlled study of Rhumex capsule in moderate Rhumatoid Arthritis

    International of recent advances in multidisciplinary research

    2018

    4

    A randomized single blind controlled parallel group study of karnim plus capsule in mild or moderate mellitus type 2

    international of tesearch in AYUSH and pharmaceutical Sciences

    2017

    5

    Therapeutic study of Brahmi and jatamansi siddha tail shirodhara on mental illness – a clinical study

    Ayushi Interdisciplinary research journal

    2018

    Dr. Abhijit Balkrishna Gaikwad

    No.

    Name of Published Article/Paper

    Name of Journal of publication

    Year

    1

    A Randomized Controlled Study Of Efficacy Of Loha Rasayan In Pandu Vyadhi (Idr).

    International Jorunal Of Research In Ayurveda And Medical Sciences

    2019

    2

    A Case Study Of Effect Of Shitbhanji Rasa Along With Snehan-Swedan In Shitpitta.

    International Jorunal Of Research In Ayurveda And Medical Sciences

    2019

    3

    International Jorunal Of Research In Ayurveda And Medical Sciences

    International Journal Of Research In Ayurveda And Medical Sciences

    2020

    Dr. Ravindra Baban Atram

    No.

    Name of Published Article/Paper

    Name of Journal of publication

    Year

    1

    Standardization of the durvadi lepa

    World journal of pharmaceutical and life sciences wjpls

    2020

    2

    Assessment of the durvadi lepa in the management of dadru

    World journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences

    2020

    3

    Pharmacognostical and pharmaceutical evaluation of guda - haritakyadi madak - an ayurvedic compound

    European journal of pharmaceutical and medical research

    2020

    4

    A clinical study on guda - haritakyadi madak in the management of kaphaja kasa

    World journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences

    2020

    5

    Pharmacological And Pharmaceutical Evaluation Of Gud Haritaki Kwath.

                EJPMER

    2020

    6

    The Effect Of Haritaki Kwath In Urinary Tract Infection By Cultural Sensitivity.

    EJBPS

    2020

    7

    The Concept Of Rasayana In Ayurveda.

                International Journal Of Research In Indian Medicine

    2020

    8

    Samanya Shodhana Of Raw Vanga By Dhalana Method With Special Reference Tp Rastarangini: Pharmaceutico -Analytical Study Frpm ARAC, Manchihill, Sangamner

    International Ayurvedic Medical Journal

    2020

    Dr. Smita Subhash Kolte

    No.

    Name of Published Article/Paper

    Name of Journal of publication

    Year

    1

    Standardization of the durvadi lepa

    World journal of pharmaceutical and life sciences wjpls

    2020

    2

    Assessment of the durvadi lepa in the management of dadru

    World journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences

    2020

    3

    Pharmacognostical and pharmaceutical evaluation of guda - haritakyadi madak - an ayurvedic compound

    European journal of pharmaceutical and medical research

    2020

    4

    A clinical study on guda - haritakyadi madak in the management of kaphaja kasa

    World journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences

    2020

  • Faculties of Kayachikitsa department have published 16 research articles in various national and international journals.

  • organization of national level webinar series of 29 various lectures.
  • Starting of Ashvin Ayurved college YouTube channel publish more than 18 research paper in various national and international journals by faculties & PG students.
  • faculties of kayachikitsa department attended more than 8 national 8 international conferences as patron/Resourse person & faculty.
  •  Best researcher in academics National award 2020    Dr. Shreerang Chhapekar, From Technoved solutions, Nagpur.
  • Dr. Shreerang Chhapekar : ASHVIN RURAL AYURVED COLLEGE NATIONAL WEBINAR SERIES ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF AYURVEDA 2020.
  • kayachikitsa department of Ashvin rural Ayurved college has successfully conducted National Webinar Series on various aspects of Ayurveda during April 2020 to May 2020.
  •  
    Various topics related to Ayurveda were covered in this webinar. National and international level speakers participated in this webinar as a resource person.
    Total 29 sessions were carried out. More than 4500 students and faculties were benifited. We feel very proud that our college is one of the colleges in India which has taken and successfully conducted sucha activity.
  •  
    Speakers from Maharashtra, Gujrat, Madhya pradesh, Hariyana, New Dehli, Meghalaya, Rajastan were participated in this webinar. Welknown speakers like Dr Kamini Dhiman (AIIA New Dehli), Dr Anurag Pande (BHU Varanasi), Dr kore (Parul university Gujart), Dr Wali (Maharashtra) were one of them.
  •  
    Webinar was organized by Dr Bhairav Tawashikar and Dr Shreerang Chhapekar with the help of principal, Dr Sanjeev Lokhande and vice principal Vd S. G. Khandizod.with the help of Dr Ravindra Atram and Dr Smita Kolte
    Director hon Mr Hodgar sir and Dr Shailendra and Dr Digvijay Hodgar inspired and supported whole team for conductng such types of activities.
  •  
    All the presentations and webinars were uploaded on College-s You tube channel. Lots of views and likes were received.
  • It was one of the unique activity conducted in the platform of Ashvin rural Ayurved College, Manchi Hill and everyone appreciated this activity.
  • No of lectures         :            29
  • No of participants :    Total 4528
  • Duration             : between April 2020 and May 2020
  • Ashvin Rural Ayurved College has also participated as an associate institute with Technoved Solutions Nagpur, CCRAS Nagpur as a host in Interdisciplinary webinar on Globalization of Ayurved : Research and Opportunities.
  • Some highlights of topics
·    Current scenario of Ayurved over the Globe
 
·    Aspects and expectations from govt Authorities
 
·   Interdisciplinary approach towards current trends in Ayurved
 
·     Identifying fast growing sectorsin Ayurvedic fields
 
·     Different carrier oppurtunities and scops in Ayurveda.
 
·     Necessity to adapt techniques of basic sciences to flourish the ancient science and future innovations
 
  • Dr Shreerang Chhapekar and Dr Bhairav Tawashikar were the host and members from our institute. In the webinar Research opportunities in Ayurved field along with interdisciplinary approach were discussed.
  • Research work and positive activities and steps taken by dept of AYUSH for covid 19 pandemic were also been elaborated by experts in CCRAS.
  • Well-known speakers from CCRAS like Dr Ashvin, Dr Reddy, Dr Shobhit Kumar and some pharmaceutical experts, scientists like Mr Govind Chandrayan also International speaker Dr Gaurang Joshi participated as resource persons.
  • More than 700 faculties, technocrats and students were benefited all over the world. Researh opportunities in Ayurvedic field all over the globe were discussed I this webinar.
  • We feel very proud that we were the part and associate of this event.
  • All recordings are available on the link of Technoved solutions facebook page.
  • National interdisciplinary  webinar on Globalization of Ayurved : Research and Opportunities
  • Ashvin Rural Ayurved College has also participated as an associate institute with Technoved Solutions Nagpur, CCRAS Nagpur as a host in Interdisciplinary webinar on Globalization of Ayurved : Research and Opportunities.
  •  
    Some highlights of topics
    ·         Current scenario of Ayurved over the Globe
    ·         Aspects and expectations from govt Authorities
    ·         Interdisciplinary approach towards current trends in Ayurved
    ·         Identifying fast growing sectorsin Ayurvedic fields
    ·    Different carrier oppurtunities and scops in Ayurveda.
    ·         Necessity to adapt techniques of basic sciences to flourish the ancient science and future innovations
  •  
    Dr Shreerang Chhapekar and Dr Bhairav Tawashikar were the host and members from our institute. In the webinar Research opportunities in Ayurved field along with interdisciplinary approach were discussed.
  •  
    Research work and positive activities and steps taken by dept of AYUSH for covid 19 pandemic were also been elaborated by experts in CCRAS.
  •  
    Well-known speakers from CCRAS like Dr Ashvin, Dr Reddy, Dr Shobhit Kumar and some pharmaceutical experts, scientists like Mr Govind Chandrayan also International speaker Dr Gaurang Joshi participated as resource persons.
  •  
    More than 700 faculties, technocrats and students were benefited all over the world. Researh opportunities in Ayurvedic field all over the globe were discussed I this webinar.
  •  
    We feel very proud that we were the part and associate of this event.
     
  • All recordings are available on the link of Technoved solutions facebook page.
 
 
 
  • Planned for seminar,quize compitation extra rural research project, health & disease related surveys of post covid awareness.
  • We have planned for more literary Research work for next batches.

Sr.

No.

Name of Candidate

Name of Guide

Year

Title of Synopsis

1

Vd. Chaudhari Sandip Dilip

Vda.Tomar Prajakta

2012-13

STUDY THE EFFICACY OF KASANTAKA CHOORNA WITH MADHU AS ANUPANA IN KAPHAJ KASA

2

Vd. Deshmukh Anwar Salim

Vda.Khabiya P.N.

2012-13

MANAGEMENT OF SHOTH (INFLAMMATION) IN AMVATA BY GADUCH GHANA - A CLINICAL STUDY

3

Vd. Punse Tushar Sureshrao

Vda..Hiremath C.S

2012-13

STUDY THE EFFICACY OF SHRUNGYADI CHURNA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF TAMAK SHVASA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BRONCHIAL ASTHAMA

4

Vd. Ramole Ashwini Gambhirrao

Vda..Tomar Prajakta

2012-13

STUDY OF PANCHASAMA CHURNA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF AMAVATA

5

Vda. Upadhyay Arpita Govind

Vda..Hiremath C.S

2012-13

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EFFICACY OF PUNARANAVADI GUGGULU AND TRIPHALA KWATHA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF MEDOVRIDDHI (OBESITY)

6

Vd. Tamboli Wasim Karim

Vda.Khabiya P.N.

2012-13

THE CLINICAL-EVALUATION OF BALYA KARMA OF KARSHAYAHAR LOHAM IN THE MANAGEMENT OF KARSHYA.

7

Vd. Kale Manishkumar Arunkumar

Vda..Hiremath C.S

2013-14

COMBINED CLINICAL STUDY OF SAVARNAKARTTA LEPA & KASHAY IN MANAGEMENT OF SHVITRA KUSHTHA W.S.R.

8

Vda. Narute Anjali Namdeo

Vda..Hiremath C.S

2013-14

A ROLE OF PATHYA VISHWA YAWANI CHURNA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF AMAVATA.

9

Vda. Siddiqui Rizwana Riyoz

Vda..Tomar Prajakta

2013-14

A CLINICAL EVALUATION OF VASAGUDUCHYADI GHANA VATI IN MANAGEMENT OF PANDU ROGA 

10

Vd. Zarekar Digvijay Laxman

Vda.Khabiya P.N.

2013-14

A COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY OF YAVANYADI YOGA AND AMRUTADAI KWATH IN THE MANAGEMENT SHEETPITTA W.S.R. TO URTICARIA  

11

Vda. Kale Priyanka Navnathrao

Vda..Hiremath C.S

2014-15

COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY ON THE EFFICACY LODHRADI LEPA AND JATIPHALADI LEPA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF MOOKHA-DOOSHIKA

12

Vd. Nalawade ashwini Nilesh

Vda..Hiremath C.S

2014-15

MANAGEMENT OF DADRU BY CHAKRAMARDA LEPA AND LAGHUMJISHTHADI KWATH WITH CHAKRAMARDA LEPA-A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL, COMPARATIVE STUDY

13

Vd. Rahangdale jagdeep Lokchand

Vda..Hiremath C.S

2014-15

THE CLINICAL STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFICACY OF PUSHKARADI KWATA IN KAPHAJ KASA

14

Vd.Bombale Abhijit Bajirao

Vda.Tawshikar B.B.

2015-16

A COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY OF NISHKATAKADI KWATH WITH MET FORMIN IN MADHUMEHA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE DIABETES MALLITUS.

15

Vda.Chandgude Pooja Vitthal

Vda..Hiremath C.S

2015-16

A RAUDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL TO ASSESS THE EFFICACY OF BHIBHITAKI CHURNA ITS AVEGAVAS THA OF TAMAK SHWASA.

16

Vda.Thengane  Shubhangi Prabhakarrao

Vda..Hiremath C.S

2015-16

SINGLE ARM STUDY TO EVALUATE SHATYADI CHURNA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF VATAJ KASA W.R.T.PULMONARY TRAPICAL EOSINOPHILLIA.

17

Vd.Dalvi Nilesh Pandurang

Vd..Chhapekar S.S.

2015-16

A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL TO ASSESS EFFICACY OF NAGARADI YOG AS COMPARED TO MADHUPIPPALI IN AVEGAVASTHA OF TAMAK SHWAS.

18

Vd..Gore Milind Balkrushna

Vd.Chhapekar S.S.

2015-16

A CLINICAL STUDY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF BAHUPITTA KAMALA WITH BHUNIMBADI CHURNA.

19

Vd.Shelavale Vikram Arun

Vda..Hiremath C.S.

2015-16

SINGLE ARM STUDY TO EVALUATE EFFICACY OF GUDA-HARITAKYADI MODAK IN KAPHAJ KASA "

20

Vd. Bathe Kaustubh Ashok

Vda..Hiremath C.S

2016-17

AN OPEN LABELED, RANDOMIZED. CONTROLLED, CLINICAL TRIAL TO EVALUATE THE EFFICACY OF VIDARYADI CHURNA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF OLIGOSPERMIA.

21

Vda. Paikrao Seema Narayan

Vda..Hiremath C.S

2016-17

A COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY OF SAHACHARADI KWATH VATI WITH TRAYODASHANG GUGGULU VATI IN THE MANAGEMENT OF JANU-SANDHIGATA VATA VIS-A -VIS OSTEOARTHRITIS OF KNEE JOINT

22

Vda. Momin Farhaana

Vda..Hiremath C.S

2016-17

 A CPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY OF PATHYYADI LEPA WITH TRIPHALADI GRUTH IN THE MANAGMENTH OF VICHARCHIKA

23

Vd. Suryawanshi Tushar Dilip

Vd. Chapekar S. S.

2016-17

A COPARATIVE STUDY  OF DADIMADI DURITA AND DARAKSHADI GHRITA IN MANAGEMENT OF PANDU

24

Vd. Sadar Sagar  Subhashrao

Vd. Chapekar S. S.

2016-17

RANDOMIZED CLINICAL STUDY TO ASSESS THE EFFICACY OF VAISHWANAR CHURNA WITH PANCHASAMA CHURNA IN MANAGEMENT OF AMAVATA.

25

Vda.Adate Jyotsna Jaywant

Vd. Tawshikar B.B.

2017-18

A CLINICAL STUDY OF MADHUTAILIK BASTI WITH VIDANGADYAM LAUHA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF MADHUMEHA W.S.R TO DIABETES  MELLITUS TYPE

26

Vd. Khairnar Tushar Balasaheb

Vd. Chhapekar S.S.

2017-18

A CLINICAL STUDY TO ACCESS THE EFFICACY  OF DASHMULABALADI CHURNA IN THE MANAGEMNET OF VATAKAPHAJA GRIDHRASI

27

Vda.Moharir Pratiksha Padmakar

Vd. Tawshikar B.B.

2017-18

A CLINICAL STUDY TO ACCESS THE EFFICACY  OF DASHMULABALADI CHURNA IN THE MANAGEMNET OF VATAKAPHAJA GRIDHRASI

28

Vda.Sadnapurkar Pratiksha Mukund

Vd. Chhapekar S.S.

2017-18

TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF TAKRA TRIPHALA YOG ON STHAULYA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO OBESITY -A CONTROLLED CLINICAL STUDY.

29

Vd. Dhivare Shivaji Ashok

Vd. Tawshikar B.B.

2018-19

A COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY OF TRASHANDI CHURNA WITH BILWADI PANCHAMULA CHURNA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF STHOULYA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO OBESITY. 

30

Vd. Khairnar Kamlesh Devidas

Vd. Chhapekar S.S.

2018-19

A CONTROLLED CLINICAL STUDY TO ACESS THE EFFICIENCY OF SINHASYADI KASHAYA COMPARIES TO DASHMULBALADI KASHAYA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF GRIDHRASI (SCIATICA)

31

Vd. Amarlal Krishanchand  Ahuja

Vd. Chhapekar S.S.

2020-21

EFFECT OF SHALYAKADI YOG (HERBAL PREPARATION ) IN UPSTHAMBHIT SANDHIGAT VAT – A CONTRILLED CLINICAL STUDY

32

Vd. Suraj Vasant Kambale

Vd.  Chhapekar S.S.

2020-2021

THE EFFICACY OF ASHWAGANDHA KSHIRPAKA AND TIL TAL ABYANG IN SYMPTOMS RELATED TO NIDRA VIPARYAYA

33

Vda. Rupali Vasant Lokhande

Vd. Lokhande S.B.

2020-2021

A CLINICAL COMARATIVE STUDY OF PATHYADI CHOORNA AND HIGAWADI CHOORNA IN MANAGEMNET OF SHOTHA IN AMAVATA.

34

Vda. Rashmi Suresh Navale

Vd. Gaikwad A.

2020-2021

A RANDOMISED CLINICAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ARJUN TWAK CHOORNA-GOKSHIR LEPAM WITH LODHRADI LEPAM WHILE MAHAMANJISTHADI KASHAY ADMINISTERD INTERNALLY IN THE MANAGEMNT OF MUKHADOOSHIKA.W.R.S ACNE VULGARIS

35

Vd. Shadabkhan Yunuskhan

Vd.  Chhapekar S.S.

2020-2021

EFFECT OF YASHTYADI YOG (HERBOMINARAL PREPARATION) IN URDHVAG AMLAPITTA  -   CLINICAL CONTROLLED STUDY.

36

Vda. Ashwini Ankush Zanzad

Vd. Lokhande S.B.

2020-2021

EFFECT OF NYGRODH UDUMBER YASHTIMADHU SIDDHA CREAM IN PADDARI  - A CONTROLLED CLINICAL STUDY.

Celebrated world cancer day on 4th February 2021

Lecture On therapeutic view of Ayurved  in non – Hodgkins Lymphoma.

Celebrated obesity day on 4th march 2021

Organized lectures of 

  • Vd. Chhapekar S. S.
  • Vd. Dongare G.D.
  • Vd. Atram R. B.